Prinsip Utama Perlindungan Korban Bencana dalam Buku Pegangan Proyek Sphere

The Sphere Project adalah suatu prakarsa untuk menentukan dan mempromosikan standar-standar yang digunakan masyarakat sedunia dalam menanggapi kebutuhan penduduk terkena bencana.

Berisikan standar-Standar Inti dan standar-standar minimum pada empat sektor kemanusiaan utama yang menyelamatkan hidup:

  1. Pasokan air, Sanitasi dan Promosi Kebersihan;
  2. Ketahanan Pangan dan Gizi;
  3. Hunian, Permukiman dan Bantuan Non-Pangan;
  4. Layanan Kesehatan.

Buku pegangan ini juga menjawab sejumlah isu lintas sektor supaya dapat melakukan tindakan tanggap dengan baik di setiap situasi bencana yang unik dan kerentanan khusus dan kapasitas dari korban bencana. Isu seperti anak-anak, gender, lanjut usia, HIV dan AIDS, orang berkebutuhan khusus, dan dukungan psikososial terkait dengan kerentanan individu dan subkelompok. Pengurangan Risiko Bencana (termasuk perubahan iklim) dan lingkungan hidup merupakan isu kerentanan yang menimpa seluruh penduduk yang terkena bencana.

Empat Prinsip Utama Perlindungan yang terdapat di dalam Buku Pegangan Proyek Sphere :

  • Prinsip perlindungan 1: Hindari semakin terpaparnya penduduk terkena bencana terhadap ancaman bahaya sebagai akibat dari kegiatan Anda.
  • Prinsip Perlindungan 2: Jaminan akses bantuan yang imparsial – sesuai dengan proporsi kebutuhan dan tanpa diskriminasi.
  • Prinsip Perlindungan 3: Perlindungan terhadap bahaya fisik dan psikologi akibat kekerasan dan ancaman.
  • Prinsip Perlindungan 4: Dukungan pemenuhan hak, akses bantuan, dan pemulihan dari kekerasan.

Dalam konteks aksi kemanusiaan, keempat prinsip di atas merefleksikan adanya ancaman yang lebih berat yang biasa dihadapi orang pada masa konflik atau bencana. Catatan panduan membantu lembaga untuk menjawab tanggung jawab dan memberikan pilihan, termasuk untuk mengenali kebutuhan khusus
perlindungan.

Keempat prinsip perlindungan berikut disarikan dari hak-hak asasi yang tercantum dalam Piagam Kemanusiaan: hak untuk hidup bermartabat, hak atas bantuan kemanusiaan, dan hak atas perlindungan dan keamanan.

Bahan Rujukan dan Bacaan Lanjutan terkait ISU PERLINDUNGAN HAK ASASI

#01 – Perlindungan Umum: Latar Belakang dan Instrumen

Caritas Australia, CARE Australia, Oxfam Australia and World Vision Australia (2008), Minimum Agency Standards for Incorporating Protection into Humanitarian Response – Field Testing Version. www.icva.ch/doc00002448.pdf

Giossi Caverzasio, S (2001), Strengthening Protection in War – A Search for Professional Standards. Ref 0783. International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). Geneva.

Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) (2002), Growing the Sheltering Tree – Protecting Rights through Humanitarian Action – Programmes & practices gathered from the field. Geneva. www.icva.ch/gstree.pdf

IASC (2010), Operational Guidelines and Manual for the Protection of Persons Affected by Natural Disasters.

ICRC (2009), Professional standards for protection work carried out by humanitarian and human rights actors in armed conflict and other situations of violence. Geneva. www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/htmlall/p0999 or www.unhcr.org/refworld/type,THEMGUIDE,,,4b39cba52,0.html

ICRC (2008), Enhancing protection for civilians in armed conflict and other situations of violence. Geneva. www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/publication/p0956.htm

O’Callaghan, S and Pantuliano, S (2007), Incorporating Civilian Protection into Humanitarian Response. HPG Report 26. Overseas Development Insitute (ODI). London.

United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) (2009), Aide Mémoire: For the Consideration of Issues Pertaining for the Protection of Civilians. New York. www.humansecuritygateway.com/showRecord.php?RecordId=33206

Slim, H and Bonwick, A (2005), Protection – an ALNAP guide for humanitarian agencies. ODI. London. www.alnap.org/initiatives/protection.aspx 

 #02 – Standar Perlindungan Khusus

Anak

ICRC, International Rescue Committee, Save the Children, UNICEF, UNHCR and World Vision (2004), Interagency Guiding Prinsips on Unaccompanied and Separated Children. Geneva. www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/other/icrc_002_1011.pdf

UNICEF (2007), Paris Principles and Commitments to Protect Children from Unlawful recruitment or Use by Armed Forces or Groups. Paris. www.un.org/children/conflict/english/parisprinsips.html

UN Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (UN-DDR) (2006), Integrated Disarmament, Demobilisation, and Reintegration Standars. New York. www.unddr.org/iddrs/05/20.php and www.unddr.org/iddrs/05/30.php

Difabel

Handicap International (2006), Protection – Issues for People with Disabilities and Injuries.

Handicap International (2008), Toolkit on Protection of Persons with Disabilities.

Kekerasan Berbasis Gender

IASC (2005), Guidelines for Gender-Based Violence Interventions in Humanitarian Settings – Focusing on the Prevention of and Response to Sexual Violence in Emergencies. Geneva. www.humanitarianinfo.org/iasc/pageloader.aspx?page=content-products-products&productcatid=3

World Health Organization (WHO) (2007), Ethical and safety recommendations for researching, documenting and monitoring sexual violence in emergencies. Geneva. www.who.int/gender/documents/violence/9789241595681/en/index.html

Perumahan, Tanah, dan Harta Milik

Prinsips on Housing and Property Restitution for Refugees and Displaced Persons. E/CN.4/SUB.2/RES/2005/21. “Pinheiro Principles”. http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/alldocs.aspx?doc_id=11644

Global Land Tool Network and Early Recovery Cluster (2010), Land and natural disasters – Guidance for Practitioners. UN Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Nairobi. www.unhabitat.org/pmss/listItemDetails.aspx?publicationID=2973

Global Protection Cluster, Housing, Land And Property Area of Responsibility (2009), Checklist of Housing, Land and Property Rights and Broader Land

Issues Throughout the Displacement Timeline from Emergency to Recovery. www.internal-displacement.org/8025708F004BE3B1/(httpInfoFiles)/430298C3C285133DC12576E7005D360D/$file/HC%20Checklist%20on%20HLP%20and%20Land%20Issues_Final2.pdf

Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, FAO, OCHA, Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, UN-HABITAT and UNHCR (2007), Handbook on Housing and Property Restitution for Refugees and Displaced Persons. Implementing the ‘Pinheiro Prinsips’, IASC. Geneva. www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4693432c2.html

Pengungsi/IDPs

Bagshaw, S and Paul, D (2004), Protect or Neglect? Towards a More Effective United Nations Approach to the Protection of Internally Displaced Persons – An Evaluation. Brookings-SAIS Project on Internal Displacement and UNOCHA, Interagency Internal Displacement Division. Washington DC. www.brookings.edu/papers/2004/1123humanrights_bagshaw.aspx

Brookings Institution – University of Bern Project of Internal Displacement (2005), Addressing Internal Displacement: A Framework for National Responsibility. Washington DC. www.brookings.edu/projects/idp/20050401_nrframework.aspx

Global Protection Cluster (2010), Handbook for the Protection of Internally Displaced Persons. www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4790cbc02.html

IASC (2004). Implementing the Collaborative Approach to Situations of Internal Displacement – Guidance for UN Humanitarian and/or Resident Coordinators. www.humanitarianinfo.org/iasc/pageloader.aspx?page=content-products-products&productcatid=10

IASC (2010), Framework on Durable Solutions for Internally Displaced Persons. www.brookings.edu/reports/2010/0305_internal_displacement.aspx

UN Economic and Sosial Council (1998), UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. E/CN.4/1998/53/Add.2. www.idpguidingprinsips.org/ or www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/TestFrame/d2e008c61b70263ec125661e0036f36e?Opendocument

Layanan Kesehatan Mental dan Psikososial

IASC (2007), IASC Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychososial Support. www.humanitarianinfo.org/iasc/pageloader.aspx?page=content-products-default

IASC Reference Group on Mental Health and Psychososial Support (2010), Mental Health and Psychososial Support (MHPSS) In Humanitarian Emergencies: What Should Protection Programme Managers Know. www.psychososialnetwork.net/explore/tags/mhpss/

Ranjau Darat atau Bahan Peledak

The International Mine Action Standars (IMAS): www.mineactionstandars.org/imas.htm#english

Lansia

IASC (2008), Humanitarian Action and Older Persons – An essential brief for humanitarian actors. WHO-HelpAge International. www.kemanusiaaninfo.org/iasc/pageloader.aspx?page=content-products-products&productcatid=24

SUMBER INFORMASI : Dikutip dari Buku The Sphere Project : Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response, 2011 Edition (Diterjemahkan oleh MPBI, Cetakan-I pada bulan Maret 2012)

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